Affect Formations

in art and music

Graphical Scores

Adinda van 't Klooster created various graphical scores during her residency at Durham University. The idea of using graphical elements rather than notes for the purpose of musical notation became a trend in the nineteen fifties and sixties when people like Cardew, Cage, Stockhausen and Berberian started to participate in this practice, but earlier graphical scores can be found in the Book of Life by Nikolai Obukhov (1892- 1954). (footnote 1)

The early graphical scores vary in their proximity to the more traditional form of music notation but were mostly created by composers, although Cage was also an artist. Both composers and more recently also artists have continued to explore the art of graphical notation. In 2009 Theresa Sauer's Notations21 explored these new developments in musical notation in a compendium of innovative scores from over 50 countries.

The scores by Adinda van 't Klooster can be loosely interpreted and are not meant to produce one definitive outcome. Rather they intend to provide a handle for improvisers to explore new methods of improvisation led by visual elements.

View Graphical Score 1

View Graphical Score 2

View Graphical Score 3

View Timbre Score

View Bodily Score

View Nature Score


  1. Shaw­Miller, S. (2002) Visible deeds of music: art and music from Wagner to Cage, Yale University)

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